Danger Below the Surface: Identifying Where Children DrownMeinhardst
July 2, 2001 — Summer and swimming go together as normally as shelled nut butter and jelly. But with the fun comes duty, and indeed danger. Each year in the U.S., hundreds of kids suffocate, many of them unnecessarily.
A unused consider in the July issue of Pediatrics tries to help anticipate children from drowning by finding where they are at greatest risk.
“What we were most fascinated by … was providing national information about the types of waters in which children were drowning, in specific age groups, to help guide intercession techniques,” study creator Ruth Brenner, MD, MPH, tells WebMD. Brenner is an examiner with the National Established of Child Wellbeing and Human Development, in Bethesda, Md.
Brenner and colleagues inspected 1,420 death certificates of childhood drownings in 1995 in the U. S. Of those passings, 47% occurred in freshwater, the foremost common destinations being rivers, rivulets, lakes and ponds; 32% kicked the bucket in swimming pools; 9% kicked the bucket in domestic sites (bathtubs and buckets); 8% were unspecified; and 4% died in salt water.
“We at that point looked at drownings by age groups and, in general, infants were most likely to drown in domestic locales, especially baths; little children in swimming pools; and more seasoned children in normal new waters,” says Brenner.
There were, however some startling discoveries. “We moreover found that a sizeable extent, around a quarter of those drownings among [1-4 years old], were in freshwater sites like ponds and waterways,” says Brenner, debunking the idea that children under four are primarily in danger around pools. “And among adolescents, particularly among black guys, there was a reasonable number of drownings that were happening in swimming pools.”
In fact, black adolescent boys over the age of 10 were 12 to 15 times more likely to drown in a pool than white boys of the same age. “From our information, we really can’t say why,” says Brenner.
While the consider may not reveal “why” the drownings happened, it does reveal a course of activity, agreeing to Brenner. “Overall what this tells us is that we need a multifaceted approach to prevention, that no single technique is attending to avoid all of these drownings since they happen in such a assortment of locales indeed inside specific age groups,” she says.
Those strategies, agreeing to a 1993 policy explanation by the American Foundation of Pediatrics (AAP), incorporate:
Steady supervision for infants and children when they are in or around any water; Installing four-sided fences with self-closing locks around private pools; Using individual flotation gadgets when riding in a watercraft, fishing, or playing near a river, lake, or sea; Educating children never to swim alone or without adult supervision; Educating children, especially high schoolers, about the perils of liquor and medicate utilization during aquatic exercises; Focusing the require for parents, caretakers, and high schoolers to memorize CPR; Instructing all children matured 5 and older how to swim; Disallowing children under 16 from working a individual watercraft.
“Kids and water really spell potential danger. Just because a child may have learned to swim does not cruel they are drown-proof. That’s still a misinterpretation among guardians,” Gary Smith, MD, DrPH, tells WebMD. Smith is the executive of the Center for Injury Research and Approach at Children’s Hospital at Columbus, Ohio, and a part of the AAP’s Committee on Damage and Harm Avoidance.
“Truly through the young years you wish to have supervision of children around water,” says Smith, including that there’s no enchantment age when a child consequently ought to be allowed to be on his or her own. “It depends on development, strength, ability to think through a challenge, and coordination.”
“Each of these drownings could be a catastrophe, and for the foremost portion they are largely preventable,” says Brenner. “With some precautions and a few expanded mindfulness of the risks that any body of water presents, ready to go a long way towards avoiding these tragedies.”